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Daily Calendar | Introduction to Guitar | Blues and Chord Structures | Fingerstyle and Western Scales | Rock Music - music composition and sound recording | Summative

Rock and Roll

Precursors and origins

The origins of rock and external image 300x300_chuck_berry_school_days.pngroll began to emerge as a musical style in United States of America during the late 1940s as a combination of the rhythms of the blues, R&B, African American culture, and from America's country and western music. Though elements of rock and roll can be heard in country records of the 1930s, and in blues records from the 1920s, rock and roll did not acquire its name until the 1950s. An early form of rock and roll was rockabilly, which combined the above elements with jazz, influences from traditional Appalachian folk music, and gospel. Going back even further, rock and roll can trace one lineage to the old Five Points district of mid-19th century New York City, the scene of the first fusion of heavily rhythmic African shuffles and sand dances with melody-driven European genres, particularly the Irish jig.

Rocking was a term first used by black gospel singers in the American South to mean something akin to spiritual rapture. By the 1940s, however, the term was used as a double entendre, ostensibly referring to dancing, but with the subtextual meaning of sex, as in Roy Brown's "Good Rocking Tonight." This type of song was usually relegated to "race music" outlets (music industry code for rhythm and blues stations) and was rarely heard by mainstream white audiences.

During the 1920s and 1930s, many white Americans enjoyed African-American jazz and blues performed by white musicians. They often objected to the music as performed by the original black artists, but found it acceptable when performed by whites. A few black rhythm and blues musicians, notably Louis Jordan, the Mills Brothers, and The Ink Spots, achieved crossover success. While rock and roll musicians increasingly wrote their own material, many of the earliest white rock and roll hits were covers of earlier rhythm and blues or blues songs. Blues would continue to inspire rock performers for decades. Delta blues artists such as Robert Johnson and Skip James also proved to be important inspirations for British blues-rockers such as The Yardbirds, Cream, and Led Zeppelin.

In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing this type of music for a multi-racial audience. Freed is credited with coining the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the rollicking R&B music. Thereafter, Freed organized many rock and roll shows attended by both whites and blacks, further helping to introduce African-American musical styles to a wider audience.

There is much debate as to what should be considered the first rock & roll record. Sister Rosetta Tharpe was recording shouting, stomping music in the 1930s and 1940s that in some ways contained major elements of mid-1950s rock and roll. Another artist who was singing hard-rocking blues/gospel to a boogie piano was Big Joe Turner, whose 1939 recording, "Roll 'em Pete," is almost indistinguishable from '50s rock and roll. Other significant records of the 1940s and early 1950s included Roy Brown ("Good Rocking Tonight", 1947), more Big Joe Turner ("Honey, Hush", 1953, and "Shake, Rattle and Roll", 1954), Paul Bascomb ("Rock and Roll", 1947), Fats Domino ("The Fat Man," 1949), Les Paul and Mary Ford ("How High the Moon," 1951)

Rolling Stone magazine argued in 2004 that "That's All Right (Mama)" (1954), Elvis Presley's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, was the first rock and roll record. Bo Diddley's 1955 hit "Bo Diddley" backed with "I'm A Man" introduced a new, pounding beat, and unique guitar playing that inspired many artists. Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" (1954) became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine's main sales and airplay charts, and the door was opened for this new wave of popular culture. Other artists with early rock 'n' roll hits were Chuck Berry and Little Richard, as well as many vocal doo-wop groups. Within the decade crooners such as Eddie Fisher, Perry Como, and Patti Page, who had dominated the previous decade of popular music, found their access to the pop charts significantly curtailed. Interestingly it was at this time that the American Federation of Musicians had a strike which force singers to become the focus during musical productions. Prior to the strike a vocalist was often just accompaniment to a band or orchestra. Nascent Rock&Roll benefited from this event.

Both rock and roll and boogie woogie have eight beats to a bar, and are twelve-bar blues. Rock and roll however has a greater emphasis on the backbeat than boogie woogie. Little Richard combined boogie-woogie piano with a heavy backbeat and over-the-top, shouted, gospel-influenced vocals that the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame says "blew the lid off the '50s." He has also been credited by Ray Charles, Smokey Robinson, and many other major recording artists for starting a new sound. James Brown and others have credited Little Richard's band for first putting funk in the rock and roll beat. Elvis Presley too cited Little Richard as an inspiration. Little Richard's wild style, with shouts and "wooo wooos," had itself been used by female gospel singers, including the 1940s' Marion Williams. Roy Brown did a Little Richard style "yaaaaaaww" long before Richard in "Ain't No Rockin no More."

From this early-1950s inception through the early 1960s, rock and roll music also spawned a new dance craze. Teenagers found the irregular rhythm of the backbeat especially suited to reviving the jitterbug dancing of the big-band era. "Sock-hops," gym dances, and home basement dance parties became the rage, and American teens watched Dick Clark's American Bandstand to keep up on the latest dance and fashion styles. From the mid-1960s on, as "rock and roll" yielded gradually to "rock," later dance genres followed, starting with the Twist, and leading up to Funk, disco, house and techno.

A Star is Born


In 1954, Elvis Presley recorded the regional hit "That's All Right (Mama)" at Sam Phillips' Sun studios in Memphis. Elvis played a rock and country & western fusion called rockabilly, which was characterized by hiccupping vocals, slapping bass and a spastic guitar style. He became the first superstar rock musician. Besides Elvis Presley, Holly, Valens, and Richardson were known as three of the first rock and roll teen idols. They were followed by other artists with massive appeal to a teenaged audience, such as Paul Anka, Ricky Nelson, Frankie Avalon, the Beatles, and later, the Monkees.

Teen idols were not only known for their catchy pop music, but good looks also played a large part in their successes. It was because of this that certain fan magazines, exclusively geared to the fans of teen idols (16 Magazine, Tiger Beat, etc.), were created. These monthly magazines typically featured a popular teen idol on the cover, as well as pin-up photographs, a Q&A, and a list of each idol's "faves" (i.e. favorite color, favorite vegetable, favorite hair color, etc.).

The trad jazz movement brought blues artists to Britain, and in 1955 Lonnie Donegan's version of "Rock Island Line" began skiffle music which inspired many young people to have a go, including John Lennon and Paul McCartney, whose "The Quarrymen", formed in March 1957, would gradually change and develop into The Beatles. These developments primed the United Kingdom to respond creatively to American rock and roll, which had an impact across the globe. In Britain, skiffle groups, record collecting and trend-watching were in full bloom among the youth culture prior to the rock era, and colour barriers were less of an issue with the idea of separate "race records" seeming almost unimaginable. Countless British youths listened to R&B and rock pioneers and began forming their own bands. Britain quickly became a new center of rock and roll.



Barre Chords


Barre chords (or bar chords) are the next level in playing guitar. Once you've mastered all starter chords (ones that revolve around the first few frets, e.g. A, C, D, G, E and their respective minors) barre chords are the next staple in the guitar playing recipe book. They're mixed in the recipe to make almost any song you've ever heard. The barre chord is to guitars as salt is to cooking. Always there. Often unnoticed. They are foundational to excellent playing.

But barre chords are another thing too: the dip. The dip is the point in your beginning guitar career when things can get tough. When you may be tempted to get discouraged or, worse, quit. It's important to know that barre chords are tough - but you can get through them!

Try these two great exercises. Combined with playing and naming the fretboard barre chords in the bottom charts - They're your sight reading piece for the week.

1. Pure barre practicing

Just hold all the strings on fret 7 with your first finger and nothing else and check if all the strings sound clear. You can help with your second finger. When all notes are clear, move to fret 6. And so on, until you reach fret 1.

2. Tough barre exercise

Hold your barre on fret 7 and with the other three fingers, do this pattern, picking one note at a time on strings 6, 5 and 4:
-------------------------------------------------------------------8-7-9-7-10-7--- ------------------------------------------------------8-7-9-7-10-7---------------- -----------------------------------------8-7-9-7-10-7----------------------------- ---------------------------8-7-9-7-10-7------------------------------------------- --------------8-7-9-7-10-7-------------------------------------------------------- -8-7-9-7-10-7---------------------------------------------------------------------
Keep holding the barre on fret 7 for the whole exercise! By the time you get to string 6, your hand will hurt like heck, but that is the purpose - to get your hand strong. Rest for a while, and do the same thing on fret 6, and so on until fret 1.


First Position (6th string root)

The great thing about barre chords is that they are completely movable. So if you move the chord up the neck a fret then you know that the chord is raised a half step. (example: C would be raised to C#). Let's look at this more in depth.
Here is some tablature of bar chords [source]:
amg2o_bar-chords-major-sixth-string-root.gif
Barre chord 6th root, major pattern


Note: after barring the fret with your first finger, when you put your 2nd through 4th fingers on the fretboard. What chord shape do your fingers form? This is known as first position barre chord (or E pattern barre chord).

amg2o_bar-chords-minor-sixth-string-root.gif
Barre chord 6th root, minor pattern


Note: after barring the fret with your first finger put fingers 3&4 on the fretboard once more. What pattern is this? This is still a first position barre chord, but is now referred to as the first position minor (or Em pattern).


Second Position (5th string root)

The only other common barre chord is the 2nd position chord. It too is very transferable, though is the bane to most new players. The second position barre chord is one where your first finger again barres across the strings ending on root 5th. Look at the following patterns and see if you can tell what standard chord pattern is formed by fingers 3-4.
amg2o_bar-chords-major-fifth-string-root.gif
Barre chord 5th root, major pattern

You'd be right if you said it looks like an A. As such it is often referred to as the A pattern.

amg2o_bar-chords-minor-fifth-string-root.gif
Barre chord 5th root, minor pattern


What about these? You'd be correct if you think they look like the Am pattern.

Between your root 6 and root 5 barre chords you can play almost any chord somewhere on the fretboard. The roots of these chords are all on either 5th or 6th strings and should be memorized:
amg2o_bar-chords-fretboard-fifth-sixth-string-notes.jpg
Root 6 and 5 note placements on the fretboard


Here's a fantastic chord finding website

http://chordbook.com/guitar-chords/

amg2o_Chord_finder.png





Sixties Rock – Rock separates from Roll

[source]
Rock 'n' roll was showing signs of collapse. Buddy Holly was dead, Elvis had returned from two years of army service and transformed himself into a shallow movie idol, and other stars like Fats Domino, Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard, and even Chuck Berry had suddenly stopped scoring hits. Novelty records, doo-wop, whitebread pop songs, and dance craze tunes like Chubby Checker's "The Twist" were left to dominate the charts.external image album-The-Beach-Boys-Surfer-Girl.jpg

Into this breach stepped - no, not the Beatles in 1964, but the Beach Boys in 1963. Having already scored a hit with "Surfin' Safari" the year before, Brian Wilson and his clean-cut backing band proceeded to tear up the charts with numbers like "Surfin' USA" and "Surfer Girl," single-handedly popularizing a short-lived "surf rock" movement that included Jan and Dean, pioneer guitarist Dick Dale, and a host of minor acts. Before the year was out, the group had popularized yet another fad: the car craze, featuring odes to hot rods and drag-racing ("Little Deuce Coupe"). Although it may seem trivial now, surf music's high-energy blend of smooth vocal harmonies and driving rock guitar was an innovation in 1963. In fact, its sound was almost indistinguishable from the Beatles' "Merseybeat" of the next year. At first, the chief difference was that the Beatles played even louder and faster.

There were other signs of life in the early 60s, however. Most importantly, a small "Negro"-owned record company whose name was a feeble pun - Motown, from the "Motor City" of Detroit - was creating a unique blend of pop, R & B, and rock 'n' roll that virtually dominated the airwaves throughout the 60s. The key to Motown's success was the careful recruiting of talented singers, songwriters, and studio musicians. The most famous included the Holland-Dozier-Holland writing team; the brilliant bass player James Jamerson, who performed on virtually every record the company made in this era, and whose influence is almost immeasurable; a long parade of "girl groups," the most important being the supremely popular Supremes; male vocal groups like the Temptations and Four Tops; and individual performers like Marvin Gaye, Mary Wells, and Stevie Wonder. Throughout much of the 60s Motown really was the sound of teenage America. Every American's memory is perfused by a long list of Motown hits, even though many of us don't realize that songs like "Ain't No Mountain High Enough," "Stop! In The Name Of Love," and "My Girl" all came from the same hit factory. The 60’s rockers, from the Beach Boys to the Rolling Stones to Janis Joplin - were all strongly influenced by the Motor City.

external image Meet_the_supremes_1962.jpg
Motown wasn't the only center of the vigorous African-American music scene in the 60s. Throughout the decade, influential A-sides were cut by artists like Aretha Franklin, Otis Redding, and Booker T, and, of course, by the one-man music industry called James Brown. Although many rock fans weren't familiar with him, Brown's demonic vocals and unstoppable rhythm section were the #1 inspiration for British R & B devotees like the Who, and Traffic - not to mention directly giving rise to the funk and disco movements of the 70s.

Aexternal image the-beatles.jpgnd now we get to the Beatles. You know about the Beatles' "invasion" of the U.S. in February, 1964, starting with an appearance on the Ed Sullivan show. And you probably realize that a swarm of British acts quickly followed in their wake. There are three points that might be worth repeating, however. First, the Beatles might have been more talented and better-advertised than any group that came before, but their music was solidly in the rock 'n' roll/show tune/R & B tradition that was already universally received at this point. Second, despite (or perhaps because of) this fact, the Beatles were hugely successful. In 1964 they placed five singles in the Top 10 at once. All of their records continued to sell like crazy throughout the rest of the decade, and with a dozen major LP releases and 30 singles in that era, this amounted to a heck of a lot of vinyl. No artist before or after has even vaguely approached this level of popularity and productivity. And third, the earliest British Invasion records were terrible - even the Stones sucked at this point, being lame blues/R & B imitators. But many of those bands went on to make wonderful, greatly influential records. The "first wave" consisted not just of the Stones, but a innumerable groups from every part of the United Kingdom, including the Animals, the Dave Clark Five, Herman's Hermits, the Hollies, Them (featuring future pop star Van Morrison), and the Zombies. Perhaps the best of the lot was Ray Davies' Kinks, an initially clumsy band of Beatles imitators who later produced some of the most thoughtful and interesting concept albums of the late 60s and early 70s. A "second wave" erupted in 1965 with heavier, blues-oriented acts like the Yardbirds (the ultimate source of England's three greatest guitar heroes, Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page) and R & B/James Brown-influenced "mods" like the Who and the Small Faces. Several of these acts persisted and prospered as the decade wore on.

The initial response to the British Invasion was a virtual surrender by the American music industry. Only the Beach Boys and Motown acts like the Supremes were able to weather the storm, each of them adapting to the Beatles' thunderous sound. However, within a year rock was again thrown into turmoil by the invention of a new, but essentially synthetic genre: folk-rock, the happy collision of Bob Dylan's lyrical approach (and often his own songs) with the Beatles' sound.
external image bob_dylan_yoga.jpg
Not only that, but Dylan himself had already "gone electric" (much to the horror of his fans), legitimizing the movement and inspiring other folk singers like Canada's Joni Mitchell (still an obscure folkie at this point). Finally, folk-rock rebounded to London and pressured acts like the Beatles and Stones to adopt more sophisticated, political, and introspective lyrics. By 1966, the Beach Boys had composed a "pop symphony" (Pet Sounds) that veered radically from the teen anguish love song format, which rock had subsisted on from the very start; and the Beatles followed this soon after with their own, even more radical break with pop tradition, the LP Revolver.

By late 1966, three factors had now collided to produce a complete revolution in rock. The first was the trend towards increasing musical and lyrical sophistication that was spearheaded by the Beatles and the folk-rockers. The second was the advent of loud, distorted, experimental guitar playing, pioneered by the Yardbirds's Jeff Beck in 1965-66. And the third was the increasing availability of marijuana and LSD, not just in elite musical circles, but on every college campus in the Western world. All of this came together in the person of one modest, self-effacing guitar player with a misleadingly wild stage persona, an experienced American blues and R & B sideman named Jimi Hendrix. After years of struggling, Hendrix burst onto the scene in late 1966 when ex-Animal Chas Chandler brought him to London, recruited a top-notch English rhythm section, gave them the trendy name "The Jimi Hendrix Experience," and financed the recording of their first single - "Hey Joe."
external image Voodoo_Child___Jimi_Hendrix_by_yorkey_sa.jpg
The effect in Britain was devastating and immediate. At just this time, the Beatles had yet again pushed the boundaries of modern recording techniques with their double A-side "Penny Lane/Strawberry Fields Forever." Within a few months, established bands like Cream, the Jeff Beck Group, the Kinks, the Zombies, and the Who had all changed their sound to follow the lead of Hendrix and the Beatles; new, deeply strange groups like Traffic, Pink Floyd, and the Nice had capitalized on the trend; and other acts like the Stones and the Hollies, which up to this point had been keeping pace with the Beatles, failed to adapt and temporarily fell to the wayside. Much of this occurred even before the Beatles released their famous, never-surpassed LP Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in the late spring of 1967.

But London wasn't the only locus of madcap innovation in late 1966 - early 1967. In New York, a self-consciously deranged band called the Velvet Underground was cutting some of the wildest experimental rock ever, under the banner of painter Andy Warhol. In Los Angeles, Frank Zappa had already put out several albums that pushed the envelope even further with completely non-musical sound collages, bizarrely humorous lyrics, and brilliantly complex orchestral arrangements. And at just about this time, a new band from L. A. called the Doors invaded the American subconscious with a self-titled album of dark, haunting pop songs whose lyrics were written by the ever-mysterious Jim Morrison. Most importantly, however, the newly-born hippie movement was gathering around the city of San Francisco; and with it, local bands were quickly formulating a unique sound, based on extended improvisation and provocative, drug-laden lyrics. The leaders were a previously established folk-rock group called the Jefferson Airplane, but the Bay Area was crawling with new acts like Janis Joplin, the guitar wizards of Quicksilver Messenger Service and the bluesy, folksy, acid-drenched Grateful Dead.
external image 250px-Doors_electra_publicity_photo.JPG
After an initial 12 months or so of fevered attempts to rip-off Sgt. Pepper's, the British music scene disintegrated into a variety of genres during 1967 and 1968. The most important were prog-rock, directly and at first entirely inspired by the Beatles' late catalogue; the intertwined British blues boom and British folk-rock movements; heavy metal, a similarly shameless rip-off of Jimi Hendrix; and the pop-rock/arena-rock approach of the ex-Beatles, the Stones, and the Who.

Prog-rock's goals were to integrate "modern" jazz, classical music, Dylan-esque lyrics, and the Beatles' smooth pop sound. Pioneered by the pathetically tacky Moody Blues, the movement occupied a spectrum between relentlessly psychedelic burn-outs like Pink Floyd and nauseatingly pretentious serious musicians like Yes, and Genesis, and King Crimson falling in between.

Blending into the early prog-rock scene was the less pretentious, if equally scholarly school of British blues and folk-rock that sprung up around mid-60s London. These acts ranged from blues purists like the early Fleetwood Mac, to folk revivalists, to hard-rocking, but Dylan-influenced working class bands, to out-and-out hippy stoners like the early David Bowie. Several acts like Jethro Tull and Traffic were strongly influenced by jazz or (as in the case of Procol Harum) classical music, and therefore leaned towards prog-rock; while others like Free mined American soul and R & B sources. Although short-lived, this scene did eventually give rise 70s glam rock genre, not to mention major 70s rock acts ranging from profound (Richard Thompson) to crass and commercial (Bad Company and later incarnations of Fleetwood Mac).
external image Sabs.jpg
Meanwhile, the electrified blues of Hendrix and his neck-and-neck imitators, like Cream and the Jeff Beck Group, directly spawned a movement that to this day plagues the airwaves - heavy metal. Although all the major elements were worked out by Hendrix within six months of his getting a recording contract, metal, strictly speaking, was created by the efforts of Jimmy Page's Led Zeppelin, their main innovation being to dumb-down the lyrics and concentrate on the loudest and most bombastic arrangements imaginable. Within just a few years, bands like Deep Purple, AC/DC, and Black Sabbath had adopted the mind-bogglingly stereotyped, testosterone-ridden, lily-white formulas that still smother the genre.

Despite all this, established acts like the Beatles, Stones, and Who had their own agendas. After crafting a few brilliant pop-rock albums in the late 60s, the Beatles split officially in early 1970. For the next several years they generated enjoyable solo records based on the same formulas, before retiring and/or losing touch with musical fashion. Their approach was slavishly imitated by such 70s mega-stars as Elton John. The Stones quickly abandoned the acid rock efforts they'd been diverted into by Brian Jones, and invented a uniquely grungy R & B-influenced sound that brought them even more massive popularity throughout the 70s. Despite being closely followed by the Faces and Rod Stewart (and arguably Joe Cocker), this style remained somewhat idiosyncratic until being revived by "alternative" and "grunge" acts like the Black Crowes and Nirvana in the 90s. Finally, the Who had come up with a crafted-but-head-banging "concept album" approach by 1969, which lent itself to high-volume arena performances. This propelled them to Major Rock Band status, and their sound (ultimately derived from the Beatles) became influential with a wide variety of lesser 70s rock acts (Aerosmith, Bad Company, Queen, Rush), perhaps contributing to the ossification and final overthrow of the "arena rock" genre by the late 70s.




It’s your music!


Every piece of music that we listen to today can directly trace part of it’s roots to the revolution of rock in the 60’s. You are to research 3 influential singer/songwriter/bands from the 60’s. YOU MAY DO THIS WITH UP TO 1 PARTNER – NO EXCEPTIONS

There are 2 parts to this assignment:


A) Theoretical, consisting of a 2 page article that has a brief list of accomplishments of each of the 3 acts as well as their musical importance. Use the guidelines below to help you in your journey:

a. Who they were influenced by;
b. Their important to the music scene in the 60’s (e.g. what did they do that was different, or contributing to the evolution of rock);
c. If/how they influenced acts that can be seen/heard today;

B) Applied, you will;

a. Oral Presentation: You are to tell the class briefly what you found (I hate long stale presentations! Be passionate! 5 minutes will do fine). Make an MP3 playlist that gives 1 example, minimum, from each musician/band. Use bits from the playlist as appropriate examples of what you found.
b. Practical Presentation: Rehearse 1 song from 1 of the artists/bands you researched. While you do the presentation from part a) play the piece on your guitar. You needn’t play the entire piece, but give an example of part of the definitive sound/style of the artist. Singing is bonus, but not necessary.

Don’t dread this!!! You will get a lot out of whatever music you listen to today by researching this. You will also get a deeper appreciation for early modern rock, I know that I have in preparing this for you.

Evaluation:

CATEGORY
4
3
2
1
General Style- minimum 2 written pages free of errors, with pictures, readable dialogue and appropriate font type/spacing
Demonstrates superior skills in layout and readability
Layout meets expectation
There are some layout difficulties. Aspects of the written document do not meet expectations.
The written submission does not approach expectations.
Theory applied - analysis of 3 artists, informs reader of artists' influences, what they accomplished and examples of who they influenced
Extremely creative analysis of studied artists
Creative analysis of artists, meets course expectations discussing things like influences and why they themselves were influential
Nears expectations discussing the history of the artists examined
The project does not approach expectations and does a poor job of analysis of the 3 artists
Oral Presentation - Engaged and gives examples of music from the artists being discussed
Shows superior presentation skills by engaging the audience with a captivating analysis of the artists and gives relevant examples to support analysis
Presentation meets expectations for oral presentation. Examples are given, analysis is complete
The presentation nears expectations for oral presentation. Some examples given, but the presentation is stiff, read from papers and/or is lacking examples of music from artists
The presentation is missing music from artists, lacking preparation and/or is delivered in a stilting fashion.
Live performance of song
The piece was played professionally in front of an audience
The piece was well performed, with few if any errors
The piece was performed adequately, though riddled with errors
The piece was difficult to listen to through errors in reproduction
Use of Time
Used time well during each class period (as shown by observation by teacher, and documentation of progress in journal) with no reminders.
Used time well during most class periods (as shown by observation by teacher, and documentation of progress in journal) with no reminders.
Used time well (as shown by observation by teacher and documentation of progress in journal), but required reminders on one or more occasions to do so.
Used time poorly (as shown by observation by teacher and/or documentation of progress in journal) in spite of several reminders to do so.


Seventies - Rock becomes big business


Whatever genre of music you listen to today is largely based on a business model. In the 60’s many of the musicians were in it to play and release their social commentary to the public, by the mid 1970’s businessmen were running the show, diluting controversial lyrics, talking about market-share and treating music like a commodity.

By the 1970's, the term "rock & roll" had become nearly meaningless. This decade saw the breakup of the Beatles and the death of Elvis Presley, robbing rock of two major influences. Pop music splintered into a multitude of styles: soft-rock, hard rock, country rock, folk rock, punk rock, shock rock - and the dance craze of the decade, disco! Rock music was big business.

We’re going to examine 3 branches of music that stemmed off in the 70’s;

1) Folk: Simon & Garfunkel (The Boxer),James Taylor (Fire and Rain), John Denver (Country Roads), Carpenters (We've only just begun), McCartney (Maybe I'm amazed).Many of their albums were full of tracks which still had a message like Dylan but often had the sugary-sound of orchestras in backing. Other folk acts like Allman Brothers joined established stoner folk like Grateful Dead with a rock-inspired folk sound (Sweet Melissa).
2) Rock:

3) Punk & Alt -rock and the beginning of what would become grunge (defined as dirty guitar sound mixed with strong leads and drums). Neil Young (Powderfinger), Genesis - Solisbury Hill, Ramones who were spearheading punk with hits like I Don't Wanna go down to the basement, Clash - London Calling, Iggy Pop - the passenger, Devo (new wave), Blondie - Call Me, Dead Kennedies - Kill the poor, Elvis Costello (who by the late 70's had gone into new wave)
  • Punk started as a backlash to conventional ‘prog. rock’ which was largely watered down 60’s rock aimed at huge auditoriums. Anybody who had a message could play punk by hammering out power chords. The Ramones were considered the first punk band while the Clash, Sex Pistols and later bands like the Ramones appeared.

Additional to the corporatization of music, another nail in the coffin of rock appeared in the late 1970's - the music video. Suddenly the message of the music couldn't be conveyed by sound only, it was now a highly visual medium and, as Getty Lee said of Rush




Rock shatters!


All genres of music today can trace their roots at some point to the music developed by bands of the 70's. Individually you are to research 3 artists/groups whose fame started in the 1970's. You are to present clips of the artists, and submit an analysis of one of their songs and look at their ancestry route both backwards, and forwards.

There are 2 parts to this assignment:


A) Theoretical, you are to present an analysis of 1 representative song from each of the artists. Include a breakdown of the key of the song, the chord pattern for the song (lyrics aren't needed). Include also a list of chords that WEREN'T used in their song, but could have been based on their key. For example, if the key was D, and they used D, G, Bm and Em, list those as being used. But also list that according to that key they could have used F#m, A and C#dim. You are ALSO to list the chain of influence to how that artist influences somebody you listen to today. You are to also trace their influences BACKWARDS to the blues era. You CANNOT use of of the bands from that era as your "starting point" (even if you do happen to listen to them today)

B) Applied, you will;

Oral Presentation: You are to tell the class briefly what you found (I hate long stale presentations! Be passionate! Don't read from your notes 5 minutes will do fine). Make an MP3 playlist that gives 1 example, minimum, from each of the 3 musician/bands. Use bits from the playlist as appropriate examples of what you found. Discuss your musical tastes and describe the chain of influence between the artists and blues.



Evaluation:

CATEGORY
4
3
2
1
General Style- minimum 2 written pages free of errors, with readable dialogue and appropriate font type/spacing
Demonstrates superior skills in layout and readability
Layout meets expectation
There are some layout difficulties. Aspects of the written document do not meet expectations.
The written submission does not approach expectations.
Theory applied - analysis of 3 artists, informs reader of artists' influences, what they accomplished and examples of who they influenced
Extremely creative analysis of studied artists
Creative analysis of artists, meets course expectations discussing things like influences and why they themselves were influential
Nears expectations discussing the history of the artists examined
The project does not approach expectations and does a poor job of analysis of the 3 artists
Oral Presentation - Engaged and gives examples of music from the artists being discussed
Shows superior presentation skills by engaging the audience with a captivating analysis of the artists and gives relevant examples to support analysis
Presentation meets expectations for oral presentation. Examples are given, analysis is complete
The presentation nears expectations for oral presentation. Some examples given, but the presentation is stiff, read from papers and/or is lacking examples of music from artists
The presentation is missing music from artists, lacking preparation and/or is delivered in a stilting fashion.
Use of Time
Used time well during each class period (as shown by observation by teacher, and documentation of progress in journal) with no reminders.
Used time well during most class periods (as shown by observation by teacher, and documentation of progress in journal) with no reminders.
Used time well (as shown by observation by teacher and documentation of progress in journal), but required reminders on one or more occasions to do so.
Used time poorly (as shown by observation by teacher and/or documentation of progress in journal) in spite of several reminders to do so.


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